Mar 4, 2016, 1:39 PM
Post #5 of 22
On Fri, 2016-03-04 at 10:51 -0800, Luis R. Rodriguez wrote:
> On Fri, Mar 4, 2016 at 10:18 AM, Toshi Kani <email@example.com> wrote:
> > On Fri, 2016-03-04 at 10:44 +0100, Ingo Molnar wrote:
> > > * Luis R. Rodriguez <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
> > >
> > > Could you outline a specific case where it's done intentionally - and
> > > the purpose behind that intention?
> > The term "overlapping" is a bit misleading.
> To the driver author its overlapping, its overlapping on the physical
Right, and I just wanted to state that there is no overlapping in VMA.
> > This is "alias" mapping -- a physical address range is mapped to
> > multiple virtual address ranges.Â Â There is no overlapping in VMA.
> Meanwhile this is what happens behind the scenes, and because of this
> a driver developer may end up with two different offsets for
> overlapping physical addresses ranges, so long as they use the right
> offset they are *supposed* to get then the intended cache type
> effects. The resulting cache type effect will depend on architecture
> and intended cache type on the ioremap call. Furthermore there are
> modifiers possible, such as was MTRR (and fortunately now deprecated
> on kernel driver use), and those effects are now documented in
> Documentation/x86/pat.txt on a table for PAT/not-PAT systems, which
> I'll past here for convenience:
Thanks for updating the documentation!
> MTRR Non-PATÂ Â Â PATÂ Â Â Â Linux ioremap valueÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Effective memory type
> Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Non-PAT |Â Â PAT
> Â Â Â Â Â PAT
> Â Â Â Â Â |PCD
> Â Â Â Â Â ||PWT
> Â Â Â Â Â |||
> WCÂ Â Â 000Â Â Â Â Â Â WBÂ Â Â Â Â Â _PAGE_CACHE_MODE_WBÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â WCÂ Â Â |Â Â Â WC
> WCÂ Â Â 001Â Â Â Â Â Â WCÂ Â Â Â Â Â _PAGE_CACHE_MODE_WCÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â WC*Â Â |Â Â Â WC
> WCÂ Â Â 010Â Â Â Â Â Â UC-Â Â Â Â Â _PAGE_CACHE_MODE_UC_MINUSÂ Â Â Â Â Â WC*Â Â |Â Â Â UC
In the above case, effective PAT is also WC.
> WCÂ Â Â 011Â Â Â Â Â Â UCÂ Â Â Â Â Â _PAGE_CACHE_MODE_UCÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â UCÂ Â Â |Â Â Â UC
> > Such alias mappings are used by multiple modules.Â Â For instance, a PMEM
> > range is mapped to the kernel and user spaces.Â Â /dev/mem is another
> > example that creates a user space mapping to a physical address where
> > other mappings may already exist.
> The above examples are IMHO perhaps valid uses, and for these perhaps
> we should add an API that enables overlapping on physical ranges. I
> believe this given that for regular device drivers, at least in review
> of write-combining, there were only exceptions I had found that were
> using overlapping ranges. The above table was used to devise a
> strategy to help phase MTRR in consideration for the overlapping uses
> on drivers. Below is a list of what was found:
> Â * atyfb: I ended up splitting the overlapping ranges, it was quite a
> bit of work, but I did this mostly to demo the effort needed on a
> device driver after a device driver already had used an overlapping
> range. To maintain the effective write-combining effects for non-PAT
> systems we added ioremap_uc() which can be used on the MMIO range,
> this would only be used on the MMIO area, meanwhile the framebuffer
> area used ioremap_wc(), the arch_phys_wc_add() call was then used to
> trigger write-combining on non-PAT systems due to the above tables.
> Â * ipath: while a split on ipath was possible the changes are quite
> significant, way more significant than what was on atyfb. Fortunately
> work on this driver for this triggered a discussion of eventually
> removing this device driver, so on v4.3-rc2 it was move to staging to
> phase it out. For completeness though I'll explain why the addressing
> the overlap was hard: apart from changing the driver to use different
> offset bases in different regions the driver also has a debug
> userspace filemap for the entire register map, the code there would
> need to be modified to use the right virtual address base depending on
> the virtual address accessed. The qib driver already has logic which
> could be mimic'd for this fortunatley, but still - this is
> considerable work. One side hack I had hoped for was that overlapping
> ioremap*() calls with different page attribute types would work even
> if the 2nd returned __iomem address was not used, fortunately this
> does not work though, only using the right virtual address would
> ensure the right caching technique is used. Since this driver was
> being phased out, we decided to annotate it required pat to be
> disabled and warn the user if they booted with PAT enabled.
> Â * ivtv: the driver does not have the PCI space mapped out
> separately, and in fact it actually does not do the math for the
> framebuffer, instead it lets
> the device's own CPU do that and assume where its at, see
> ivtvfb_get_framebuffer() and CX2341X_OSD_GET_FRAMEBUFFER, it has a get
> but not a setter. Its not clear if the firmware would make a split
> easy. As with ipath, we decided to just require PAT disabled. This was
> a reasonable compromise as the hardware was really old and we
> estimated perhaps only a few lost souls were using this device driver,
> and for them it should be reasonable to disable PAT.
> Fortunately in retrospect it was only old hardware devices that used
> overlapping ioremap() calls, but we can't be sure things will remain
> that way. It used to be that only framebuffer devices used
> write-combining, these days we are seeing infiniband (ipath was one,
> qib another) use write-combining for PIO TX for some sort of blast
> feature, I would not be surprised if in the future other device
> drivers found a quirky use for this. The ivtv case is the *worst*
> example we can expect where the firmware hides from us the exact
> ranges for write-combining, that we should somehow just hope no one
> will ever do again.
> > Hence, alias mapping itself is a supported use-case.Â Â However, alias
> > mapping with different cache types is not as it causes undefined
> > behavior.
> Just as-is at times some types of modifiers, such as was with MTRR.
> In retrospect, based on a cursory review through the phasing of MTRR,
> we only have ipath left (and that will be removed soon) and we just
> don't know what ivtv does. If we wanted a more in-depth analysis we
> might be able to use something like coccinelle to inspect for
> overlapping calls, but that may be a bit of a challenge in and of
> itself. It may be easier to phase that behavior out by first warning
> against it for a few cycles, and then just laying a hammer down and
> saying 'though shalt not do this', and only enable exceptions with a
> special API.
These are great work! Â I agree that we should phase out those old drivers
written to work with MTRR.
> > Therefore, PAT module protects from this case by tracking cache types
> > used for mapping physical ranges.Â Â When a different cache type is
> > requested, is_new_memtype_allowed() checks if the request needs to be
> > failed or can be changed to the existing type.
> Do we have a map of what is allowed for PAT and non-PAT, similar to
> the one for MTRR effects above?
This type check and tracking code are part of PAT code, so there is no
check for the non-PAT case.
> It would seem we should want something similar for other architectures ?
As far as I know, other architectures does not support alias maps with
different cache types, either. Â So, I agree that this is a common issue.
> But if there isn't much valid use for it, why not just rule this sort of
> stuff out and only make it an exception, by only having a few uses being
I agree that it should fail in general. Â One exception is WB request, which
is allowed to be modified to any other type. Â I think this is needed for
/dev/mem, which maps with WB without any knowledge of a target range.
> > I agree that the current implementation is fragile, and some interfaces
> > skip such check at all, ex. vm_insert_pfn().
> > > > The problem is that without this it remains up to the developer of
> > > > the driver to avoid overlapping calls, and a user may just get
> > > > sporadic errors if this happens.Â Â As another problem case,
> > > > set_memor_*() will not fail on MMIO even though set_memor_*() is
> > > > designed only for RAM. If the above strategy on avoiding
> > > > overlapping is agreeable, could the next step, or an orthogonal
> > > > step be to error out on set_memory_*() on IO memory?
> > >
> > > So how do drivers set up WC or WB MMIO areas? Does none of our
> > > upstream video drivers do that?
> > Drivers use ioremap family with a right cache type when mapping MMIO
> > ranges, ex. ioremap_wc().Â Â They do not need to change the type to MMIO.
> > Â RAM is different since it's already mapped with WB at boot-time.
> > Â set_memory_*() allows us to change the type from WB, and put it back
> > to WB.
> Shouldn't set_memory_*() fail on IO memory? It does not today.
Agreed. Â It should have had such check to begin with.